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Paris Agreement 2050 and 2100

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Paris Agreement 2050 and 2100: A Guide to the Future of Climate Action

The Paris Agreement, adopted by 195 countries in 2015, sets a long-term goal to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above preindustrial levels, and aim for 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit), by the end of this century. To achieve this ambitious target, the Agreement also requires all parties to submit their nationally determined contributions (NDCs) every five years, indicating their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. The first round of NDCs was due in 2020, but many countries have postponed their submission due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the urgency of climate action remains high, particularly as the science warns of increasing risks of catastrophic disasters, food and water insecurity, health threats, and ecological collapse.

To address the long-term challenge of climate change, the Paris Agreement also includes a framework for collective progress towards carbon neutrality (or net-zero emissions) in the second half of this century. Specifically, Article 4.1 requires all parties to “aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that peaking will take longer for developing country Parties, and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with best available science, so as to achieve a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century.” This means that by 2050 or 2100, the world must achieve a balance between the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases emitted by human activities, such as burning fossil fuels, and the amount absorbed by natural or artificial sinks, such as forests, grasslands, oceans, or carbon capture and storage technologies.

The Paris Agreement does not specify a single date for global carbon neutrality, but encourages parties to communicate and update their long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies (LT-LEDS) every five years. These strategies should reflect each country`s national circumstances, development priorities, and sustainable development goals, and integrate mitigation and adaptation measures across sectors and levels of governance. They should also provide a clear vision and pathway towards carbon neutrality by 2050 or 2100, as well as interim targets and actions for the next decades. Some countries, particularly high-emitting ones, have already announced their net-zero targets for different years, such as the European Union by 2050, Japan by 2050, South Korea by 2050, the United Kingdom by 2050, and China by 2060.

To accelerate the global transition towards carbon neutrality, the Paris Agreement also promotes international cooperation and support through various mechanisms, such as the Green Climate Fund, the Technology Mechanism, the Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency, and the Global Stocktake. These mechanisms aim to enhance the implementation and ambition of NDCs, facilitate the transfer and diffusion of clean and sustainable technologies, strengthen the capacity of countries to measure, report, and verify their emissions and actions, and assess the collective progress towards the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement. The next Global Stocktake is expected to take place in 2023, and will review the overall progress and gaps of the Paris Agreement in light of the latest science and equity considerations.

In conclusion, the Paris Agreement 2050 and 2100 represent a critical milestone and a daunting challenge for the world to address the existential threat of climate change. While the Agreement provides a framework and guidance for collective action, its success ultimately depends on the political will, public support, and technological innovation of all parties. As a professional, you can contribute to the communication and dissemination of accurate, clear, and engaging content about the Paris Agreement and its implications for the future of our planet. By raising awareness and understanding of climate issues, you can help inspire and empower more people and organizations to join the global movement towards a sustainable and resilient future for all.